Category: Nutritional Ketosis

A Comprehensive Approach to Alleviating Migraines, Anxiety, and Tremors: Integrating Nutritional Psychiatry, a Low-Carb/Carnivore Diet, and Intermittent Fasting


Living with migraines, anxiety, and tremors can be challenging, impacting both physical and mental well-being. Fortunately, emerging research suggests that a comprehensive approach combining nutritional psychiatry, a low-carb/carnivore diet, and intermittent fasting may offer relief from these symptoms. In this blog post, we will explore the principles behind this integrative approach and provide practical tips for incorporating it into your lifestyle.

Understanding the Foundations:

Nutritional Psychiatry:
Nutritional psychiatry focuses on the connection between diet and mental health. Consuming nutrient-dense foods rich in antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and essential vitamins and minerals can help reduce inflammation, support neurotransmitter balance, and enhance overall brain health.

Low-Carb/Carnivore Diet:
A low-carb or carnivore diet emphasizes the reduction or elimination of carbohydrates while prioritizing animal-based proteins and healthy fats. By minimizing carbohydrate intake, this diet aims to stabilize blood sugar levels, reduce inflammation, and optimize brain function.

Intermittent Fasting:
Intermittent fasting involves cycling between periods of eating and fasting. This approach promotes metabolic flexibility and may enhance cellular repair mechanisms, reduce inflammation, and support overall well-being. A common approach is to have an eating window during specific hours of the day and fast for the remaining period.

The Integration Process:

Embrace Whole, Nutrient-Dense Foods:
Incorporate a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, healthy fats, and nuts/seeds into your diet. Prioritize grass-fed meats, wild-caught fish, leafy greens, and low-carb vegetables to provide essential nutrients for brain health.

Eliminate Seed Oils:
Eliminate seed oils such as soybean, sunflower, safflower, and corn oil from your diet. These oils are high in omega-6 fatty acids, which can promote inflammation. Instead, opt for healthier alternatives like olive oil, coconut oil, lard, ghee, beef tallow, and grass-fed butter.

Mindful Meal Planning:
Work with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to develop a personalized meal plan. Focus on high-quality animal proteins, healthy fats, and non-starchy vegetables. Experiment with delicious recipes that align with your dietary preferences and restrictions.

Implement Intermittent Fasting:
Start with a 12-hour fasting window overnight and gradually increase to 16 or 18 hours, as tolerated. During the eating window, prioritize nutrient-dense meals to ensure adequate nutrition. Stay hydrated with water and herbal tea throughout the fasting period.

Prioritize Sleep and Stress Management:
Adequate sleep and stress management are vital components of overall well-being. Establish a consistent sleep routine and incorporate stress-reducing techniques like mindfulness, meditation, or yoga into your daily routine.

Regular Exercise:
Engage in regular physical activity to support overall health and well-being. Moderate-intensity exercises like aerobic activities and strength training can improve mood, reduce stress, and enhance brain function.


Taking a comprehensive approach to managing migraines, anxiety, and tremors through nutritional psychiatry, a low-carb/carnivore diet, and intermittent fasting offers a promising strategy for symptom alleviation. However, it’s crucial to remember that individual needs may vary, and it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian before making significant dietary changes.

By embracing whole, nutrient-dense foods, eliminating seed oils, and implementing intermittent fasting, you can optimize your brain health and potentially find relief from these debilitating conditions. Prioritize self-care, practice mindful eating, and seek professional guidance to ensure a safe and effective journey towards better health and well-being.

Remember, always consult with your healthcare provider before making any changes to your diet or treatment plan.


Smith R, et al. (2020). The role of nutrition in mental health: Breaking the vicious cycle of poor mental health and unhealthy diets. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 9094. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249094.
Paoli A, et al. (2019). Beyond weight loss: A review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(3), 324-333. doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0341-9.
Patterson RE, et al. (2015). Intermittent fasting and human metabolic health. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(8), 1203-1212. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.02.018.

Exploring the Potential Benefits of MCT Oil for Health and Wellness

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

MCT oil, short for medium-chain triglyceride oil, has gained considerable attention in recent years for its potential health benefits. Derived from coconut or palm kernel oil, MCT oil is composed of medium-chain fatty acids that are easily absorbed and rapidly converted into energy by the body. In this article, we will explore the various benefits associated with MCT oil and its potential impact on weight management, energy levels, cognitive function, gut health, nutrient absorption, and certain medical conditions.

Weight Management:
MCT oil has been the subject of studies investigating its role in weight loss and weight management. Due to its unique properties, MCT oil can increase feelings of fullness and potentially reduce calorie intake, aiding in weight management efforts. Incorporating MCT oil into a balanced diet may provide individuals with a sustainable approach to shedding excess pounds.

Energy Boost:
One of the notable advantages of MCT oil is its ability to serve as a quick source of energy. Unlike long-chain fatty acids, which take longer to break down, MCT oil is rapidly converted into energy by the body. This characteristic makes it a favored choice for athletes and individuals engaging in high-intensity workouts, as it can provide an immediate energy boost to fuel performance.

Mental Clarity and Cognitive Function:
The consumption of MCT oil can lead to elevated levels of ketones in the body. Ketones are an alternative energy source for the brain, and they have been associated with improved mental clarity, focus, and cognitive function. This makes MCT oil particularly intriguing for individuals following ketogenic diets or seeking to enhance their mental performance.

Nutrient Absorption:
MCT oil has been found to enhance the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. By incorporating MCT oil into meals, the body’s ability to absorb essential nutrients such as vitamin E, vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium may be improved. This can be especially beneficial for individuals with nutrient deficiencies or compromised nutrient absorption.

Gut Health:
The antimicrobial properties of MCT oil have shown potential in promoting a healthy gut microbiome. Research suggests that MCT oil can help reduce harmful bacteria while encouraging the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system. A balanced gut microbiome is crucial for overall gut health, digestion, and immune function.

Increased Ketone Production:
MCT oil is frequently used in ketogenic diets due to its ability to enhance the production of ketones in the body. Ketones are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy and can provide metabolic benefits such as enhanced fat burning. This makes MCT oil a valuable addition to the diet of those aiming to achieve and maintain a state of ketosis.

Management of Certain Medical Conditions:
Emerging research indicates that MCT oil may have a positive impact on certain medical conditions. Studies have explored its potential use in managing epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and autism. While more research is needed to fully understand its effects and appropriate usage, MCT oil shows promise as a potential adjunct therapy for these conditions.

MCT oil offers a range of potential health benefits, including weight management, increased energy, improved cognitive function, gut health promotion, enhanced nutrient absorption, and potential therapeutic applications in certain medical conditions. However, it is essential to remember that individual responses may vary, and consulting with a healthcare professional before incorporating MCT oil into your routine is advised. Additionally, moderation is key, as excessive consumption of MCT oil may lead to digestive issues or an increase in calorie intake. With the right approach, MCT oil can be a valuable addition to a balanced and healthy lifestyle.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Intermittent Fasting: The Key to Metabolic Health, Empowered by the Ketogenic Diet for Satiety, Hunger Reduction, and Craving Control

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD


In the realm of metabolic health, one strategy has risen above the rest: Intermittent Fasting (IF). When coupled with the Ketogenic (Keto) diet, IF becomes an unrivaled approach that unlocks the full potential of satiety, hunger reduction, and cravings control. By harnessing the power of fasting, IF paves the way for optimal metabolic function, while the Keto diet amplifies these benefits, leading to improved overall health and well-being.

Intermittent Fasting: A Metabolic Game Changer

Intermittent Fasting has garnered widespread acclaim due to its profound impact on metabolic health. Rather than focusing solely on what you eat, IF centers on when you eat, establishing periods of fasting interspersed with designated eating windows.

At the core of IF lies its ability to promote metabolic flexibility. By depriving your body of constant food intake, it becomes adept at tapping into stored fat as an alternative energy source. This metabolic switch leads to weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced inflammation.

Satiety and Hunger Reduction: The Role of IF

One of the key advantages of IF is its capacity to enhance satiety and curb hunger. During fasting periods, your body turns to its fat stores for fuel, facilitating fat burning and weight loss. However, the benefits extend far beyond shedding pounds.

IF effectively regulates hunger and fullness hormones, such as ghrelin and leptin, which influence appetite. With consistent practice, these hormones rebalance, resulting in reduced hunger and decreased cravings. By allowing your body ample time between meals, IF equips you with a newfound sense of control over your eating habits.

The Power of the Ketogenic Diet

Enter the Ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat approach that synergizes remarkably with IF. By drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing healthy fat consumption, the Keto diet promotes nutritional ketosis—a metabolic state where your body primarily relies on fat for energy.

The Keto diet is a satiety powerhouse. Healthy fats take longer to digest, keeping you feeling full and satisfied for extended periods. This phenomenon effectively curbs hunger, reduces cravings, and prevents the energy crashes associated with high-carbohydrate diets.

IF and Keto: The Dynamic Duo for Metabolic Health

When Intermittent Fasting and the Ketogenic diet join forces, a metabolic transformation occurs. IF acts as the catalyst, priming your body for efficient fat burning, while the Keto diet ensures that fat becomes the primary fuel source.

By following a Ketogenic diet within your designated eating window, you not only maintain a state of ketosis but also heighten the feeling of satiety. The combined approach effectively reduces hunger and cravings, making it easier to adhere to your dietary goals and achieve optimal metabolic health.


Intermittent Fasting is the key to unlocking metabolic health, and when paired with the Ketogenic diet, it becomes an unbeatable strategy for satiety, hunger reduction, and craving control. IF enhances your body’s ability to tap into stored fat for energy and regulates hunger hormones, while the Keto diet amplifies these effects through increased fat consumption.

Embrace Intermittent Fasting as your metabolic ally and leverage the Ketogenic diet as the perfect complement. Together, they offer a path to sustainable weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, and enhanced overall well-being. Experience the transformative power of IF and Keto, and embrace a life of metabolic vitality.

Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

From Keto to Carnivore: Decoding Low Carb Diets for Ultimate Health and Vitality

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

In the quest for improved health and weight management, numerous dietary approaches have gained popularity. Among the most well-known are the low carb diets, including the ketogenic diet (keto) and the carnivore diet. However, it is important to understand the subtle nuances and benefits of each variation, as well as other popular low carb diets such as the Paleo, Mediterranean, and Standard American Diet (S.A.D.). In this article, we will explore the differences and benefits of these dietary choices, shedding light on the variables that make each one unique.

The Ketogenic Diet (Keto):
The ketogenic diet is a low carb, high fat diet that encourages the body to enter a state of ketosis. By significantly reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat consumption, the body shifts from using glucose as its primary fuel source to using ketones. This metabolic state has been associated with several benefits, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased mental clarity. Additionally, keto has shown promise in managing epilepsy and certain neurological disorders.

The Carnivore Diet:
At the other end of the spectrum lies the carnivore diet, which emphasizes exclusively animal products and eliminates plant-based foods entirely. This ultra-low carb, high fat, and high protein approach aims to mimic the dietary patterns of our ancestors. Advocates claim that eliminating plant foods can reduce inflammation, promote weight loss, and improve digestion. However, it is important to note that the carnivore diet is highly restrictive and lacks the diversity of nutrients found in a balanced diet.

The Paleo Diet:
The Paleo diet seeks to emulate the eating habits of our Paleolithic ancestors. It promotes the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods such as lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, while excluding grains, legumes, dairy products, and processed foods. By focusing on nutrient-dense foods and eliminating potential allergens, the Paleo diet aims to support weight loss, improve digestion, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

The Mediterranean Diet:
The Mediterranean diet is inspired by the traditional eating patterns of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It emphasizes plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, while incorporating moderate amounts of fish, poultry, and dairy products. This approach is rich in healthy fats, antioxidants, and fiber, which have been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease, improved brain function, and overall longevity.

The Standard American Diet (S.A.D.):
The Standard American Diet, unfortunately, is characterized by a high intake of processed foods, refined sugars, unhealthy fats, and a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. This diet is associated with a variety of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. It lacks the nutrient density and balance necessary for optimal health.

Benefits of Each Approach:

Keto: Weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, increased mental clarity, potential therapeutic benefits for epilepsy and neurological disorders.
Carnivore: Potential for reduced inflammation, weight loss, and improved digestion. However, it may lack essential nutrients and long-term sustainability.
Paleo: Improved weight management, reduced risk of chronic diseases, increased nutrient intake, elimination of potential allergens.
Mediterranean: Heart health, improved brain function, longevity, reduced risk of chronic diseases, balanced nutrient intake.
S.A.D.: No significant benefits compared to the other diets mentioned. Associated with various health issues.

Choosing the right low carb diet depends on individual goals, preferences, and health considerations. While the ketogenic and carnivore diets offer unique metabolic effects, it is important to consider the

long-term sustainability and potential nutrient deficiencies. The Paleo and Mediterranean diets provide a balanced approach by emphasizing whole, unprocessed foods and diverse nutrient profiles. In contrast, the Standard American Diet (S.A.D.) is associated with numerous health problems due to its reliance on processed and unhealthy foods.

It is essential to note that individual responses to different diets may vary. What works for one person may not yield the same results for another. It is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before making significant dietary changes.

Ultimately, the key to a successful and sustainable low carb diet lies in finding a balance that aligns with your health goals and preferences. Incorporating whole, nutrient-dense foods while reducing processed carbohydrates can have a positive impact on weight management, overall health, and disease prevention. By understanding the variables and benefits of different low carb diets, you can make an informed decision and embark on a journey towards improved well-being.

Comparison chart highlighting the macronutrient composition of each diet:

Please note that the macronutrient ratios mentioned above can vary based on individual preferences and specific interpretations of each diet. Additionally, the “Moderate” category indicates a more balanced distribution rather than being excessively high or low.

It’s important to keep in mind that macronutrient ratios can be adjusted within each diet based on individual needs, health goals, and preferences. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance for determining the ideal macronutrient breakdown for your specific circumstances.

Remember that while macronutrients play a significant role in dietary choices, the quality of food, micronutrient content, and overall balance of the diet are also crucial factors to consider for long-term health and well-being.

Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

The Nutritional Powerhouse: Why Steak Triumphs Over Kale, Fruits, and Vegetables for Keto

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Following a ketogenic diet requires careful consideration of the perfect meal that meets all your nutritional needs. While kale, fruits, and vegetables are often lauded for their vitamin and mineral content, it is crucial to recognize the exceptional nutritional value that steak brings to the table. In this article, we will explore how steak, packed with specific vitamins and minerals, surpasses other food options for those adhering to a keto lifestyle.

Vitamin B12:
Steak, especially grass-fed beef, is an exceptional source of vitamin B12, crucial for energy production, brain health, and the formation of red blood cells. A 3-ounce serving of steak provides approximately 158% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin B12, while kale, fruits, and vegetables fall short in this aspect.

Choline is an essential nutrient important for brain function, liver health, and muscle movement. While kale and certain vegetables contain choline, steak surpasses them significantly. A 3-ounce serving of steak delivers around 32% of the RDI of choline, making it a superior choice for meeting your choline requirements.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
Omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for heart health, brain function, and reducing inflammation. While fatty fish like salmon are renowned for their omega-3 content, certain cuts of steak, particularly grass-fed beef, provide a respectable amount. A 3-ounce serving of steak offers approximately 84 milligrams of omega-3 fatty acids, making it a viable option for keto enthusiasts.

A cornerstone of the ketogenic diet is consuming an adequate amount of protein while minimizing carbohydrate intake. Steak, with its high protein content, outshines kale, fruits, and vegetables. A 3-ounce serving of steak typically supplies around 22 grams of protein, making it an excellent choice for meeting protein needs.

Iron is essential for transporting oxygen throughout the body and preventing anemia. Steak, particularly red meat, is an exceptional source of heme iron, which is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron found in plant-based sources. A 3-ounce serving of steak contains approximately 15% of the RDI of iron, offering a considerable advantage over kale, fruits, and vegetables.

Magnesium, Phosphorus, and Potassium:
Steak provides a notable amount of minerals crucial for various bodily functions. A 3-ounce serving of steak typically supplies around 8% of the RDI of magnesium, 20% of the RDI of phosphorus, and 7% of the RDI of potassium. These percentages surpass what kale, fruits, and vegetables offer in terms of these specific minerals.

Riboflavin, Niacin, B6, and Thiamine:
Steak contains an array of B vitamins necessary for energy production, brain health, and overall well-being. A 3-ounce serving of steak offers approximately 20% of the RDI of riboflavin, 36% of the RDI of niacin, 24% of the RDI of vitamin B6, and 11% of the RDI of thiamine. These percentages highlight the superiority of steak over kale, fruits, and vegetables in terms of these specific B vitamins.

Selenium and Zinc:
Steak is an excellent source of the minerals selenium and zinc, both of which are crucial for immune function and overall health. A 3-ounce serving of steak typically provides around 48% of the RDI of selenium and 36% of the RDI of zinc.

In conclusion, when it comes to following a ketogenic diet, steak proves to be an exceptional choice that surpasses kale, fruits, and vegetables in terms of specific vitamins and minerals. Packed with vitamin B12, choline, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, niacin, B6, thiamine, selenium, zinc, and potassium, steak offers a comprehensive nutritional profile that aligns perfectly with the principles of a keto lifestyle.

By incorporating steak into your keto meal plan, you can ensure an abundant supply of these essential nutrients, supporting energy production, brain function, immune health, and muscle maintenance. The bioavailability of these vitamins and minerals in steak further enhances their utilization by the body, maximizing their benefits.

It is important to note that while fruits and certain vegetables may not be emphasized in a strict ketogenic diet due to their carbohydrate content, it is still essential to include non-starchy vegetables that are low in carbs, such as leafy greens, to ensure an adequate intake of fiber, micronutrients, and antioxidants.

As always, consulting with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian is recommended to personalize your keto diet plan and ensure it meets your individual needs and goals.

With the exceptional nutrient profile of steak, it can be a valuable addition to your ketogenic journey, providing not only delicious flavor but also a wide array of essential vitamins and minerals that support your overall health and well-being while maintaining ketosis.

Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Rejuvenate Your Body: Harnessing the Power of Intermittent Fasting for Autophagy

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD


Intermittent fasting has gained significant attention in recent years due to its potential health benefits. One of the key aspects of intermittent fasting is its ability to stimulate a process called autophagy. Autophagy, which translates to “self-eating” in Greek, is a natural cellular process that plays a vital role in maintaining cellular health and overall well-being. In this article, we will explore the importance of intermittent fasting for autophagy and how it can positively impact our health.

Understanding Autophagy

Autophagy is an intricate process by which cells remove and recycle damaged, dysfunctional, or unnecessary components, such as proteins and organelles. It acts as a cellular cleansing mechanism, promoting cellular renewal and enhancing the overall efficiency of our cells. This process is crucial for maintaining cellular health, preventing the accumulation of toxic substances, and reducing the risk of various diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.

Autophagy and Intermittent Fasting

Intermittent fasting is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of fasting and eating. It doesn’t focus on what you eat but rather when you eat. Commonly, individuals adopt one of the popular intermittent fasting methods, such as the 16/8 method (fasting for 16 hours and eating within an 8-hour window) or the 5:2 diet (eating normally for five days and significantly reducing calorie intake for two non-consecutive days).

Studies have suggested that intermittent fasting can stimulate autophagy, thereby enhancing cellular health. When we fast, our body experiences a drop in insulin levels, leading to a state of increased autophagy. During this fasting period, the body shifts from utilizing glucose as a primary source of energy to utilizing stored fats through a process called ketosis. Ketosis has been shown to induce autophagy and promote cellular rejuvenation.

Benefits of Autophagy

  1. Cellular Regeneration: Autophagy allows for the removal of damaged or malfunctioning cellular components, promoting cellular regeneration and rejuvenation. This process helps to maintain cellular health and prevent the accumulation of toxic substances that can lead to various diseases.
  2. Anti-Aging Effects: Autophagy has been linked to anti-aging effects. By eliminating damaged cellular components and proteins, autophagy can help slow down the aging process and delay age-related diseases.
  3. Disease Prevention: Autophagy plays a crucial role in protecting against various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. By eliminating dysfunctional cells and reducing oxidative stress, autophagy helps to mitigate the risk of these diseases.
  4. Metabolic Health: Intermittent fasting and autophagy can have positive effects on metabolic health. It has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, regulate blood sugar levels, and promote healthy weight management.
  5. Clearance of Protein Aggregates: Intermittent fasting triggers autophagy, enabling cells to remove protein aggregates, including amyloid, tau, alpha-synuclein, and Lewy bodies. These aggregates are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and other conditions. By effectively clearing these toxic substances, intermittent fasting helps decrease neuroinflammation and supports brain health.
  6. Reduction of Primed Glial Cells: Primed glial cells, when overactive, contribute to neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting helps clear these primed glial cells, further decreasing neuroinflammation and offering neuroprotective effects. This reduction in neuroinflammation is key in preserving brain function and mitigating the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.


Autophagy is a vital cellular process that promotes cellular health, rejuvenation, and disease prevention. Intermittent fasting serves as an effective tool to stimulate autophagy and reap its numerous benefits. By adopting intermittent fasting, individuals can harness the power of autophagy, enhancing their overall well-being and reducing the risk of various age-related diseases.

However, it is important to note that intermittent fasting may not be suitable for everyone, especially those with specific medical conditions or nutritional needs. It is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before implementing any significant dietary changes.

Incorporating intermittent fasting into one’s lifestyle, along with a balanced diet and regular exercise, can pave the way for improved cellular health and a healthier, more vibrant life.

Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

CAC: The Ultimate Test for Assessing Health and Why You Need One Now!

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD


In the realm of healthcare, staying proactive and prioritizing preventive measures is key to maintaining optimal health. The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test has recently emerged as a groundbreaking tool in health assessment, providing invaluable insights into cardiovascular health. This article highlights the significance of CAC as the ultimate test for assessing health and emphasizes why individuals should consider getting one now to safeguard their well-being. Additionally, we’ll explore how patients can easily obtain a CAC scan for themselves.

Understanding CAC Scoring

The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test employs non-invasive computed tomography (CT) scans to detect the presence and extent of calcified plaque in the coronary arteries. By quantifying the amount of calcium present, it calculates a CAC score, effectively gauging the overall burden of atherosclerosis in the arteries. This score serves as a crucial predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), empowering individuals to take preventive action.

The Urgency of CAC as a Health Indicator

  1. Early Detection of Silent Risks: CAC scoring enables early detection of potential cardiovascular issues, even before symptoms manifest. By identifying calcified plaque deposits, healthcare professionals can determine an individual’s risk of experiencing a heart attack or developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Seeking a CAC test now can help unveil hidden risks and prompt timely interventions to prevent disease progression.
  2. Personalized Risk Assessment: Unlike traditional risk assessment tools, CAC scoring provides a precise evaluation of atherosclerosis. Through quantitative analysis, it offers a more accurate estimation of an individual’s risk of developing CVD. Obtaining a CAC score now empowers healthcare providers to devise personalized treatment plans tailored to an individual’s level of risk, enabling timely interventions and better health outcomes.
  3. Empowerment for Lifestyle Changes: CAC scoring serves as a powerful motivator for individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles. Witnessing the presence and extent of calcified plaque acts as a visual reminder of the importance of positive changes in diet, exercise, and stress management. By getting a CAC test now, you can proactively take charge of your health, making informed decisions and fostering long-term adherence to beneficial lifestyle modifications.
  4. Preventive Measures for Long-Term Health: CAC scoring facilitates proactive preventive measures by categorizing individuals into different risk groups based on their CAC scores. This allows healthcare providers to implement appropriate treatments and interventions to reduce the risk of CVD. Taking action now, based on your CAC score, can significantly improve your long-term cardiovascular health and well-being.

How to Obtain a CAC Scan

To obtain a CAC scan, you can follow these steps:

  1. Consult Your Healthcare Provider: Schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider to discuss your interest in getting a CAC scan. They will evaluate your medical history, risk factors, and overall health to determine if a CAC scan is appropriate for you.
  2. Referral and Imaging Facility: If your healthcare provider determines that a CAC scan is necessary, they will provide you with a referral to an imaging facility or radiology center equipped to perform the scan.
  3. Schedule the Scan: Contact the recommended imaging facility and schedule your CAC scan appointment. They will provide you with any necessary instructions, such as fasting requirements or medication restrictions before the test.
  4. The CAC Scan Procedure: During the CAC scan, you will lie on a table that moves through a CT scanner. The scan is quick and painless, typically taking only a few minutes to complete.
  5. Results and Follow-up: Once the scan is complete, the radiologist will analyze the images and calculate your CAC score. Your healthcare provider will then review the results with you. They will explain the implications of your CAC score, discuss any necessary lifestyle modifications or medical interventions, and develop a personalized plan to mitigate your cardiovascular risk.


The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test is a powerful tool for assessing cardiovascular health and preventing future complications. By identifying silent risks, providing personalized risk assessment, motivating lifestyle changes, and enabling proactive preventive measures, CAC scoring empowers individuals to take control of their well-being. To obtain a CAC scan, consult your healthcare provider, obtain a referral to an imaging facility, schedule the scan, and discuss the results and follow-up plan with your healthcare provider. Take the proactive step towards optimizing your health and consider getting a CAC scan now. Your heart and overall well-being will thank you for it.

CAC Score

After undergoing a CAC scan, you will receive a CAC score that falls within a specific range. Here are the general ranges and their corresponding meanings:

  1. CAC Score of 0: A CAC score of 0 indicates the absence of detectable calcified plaque in the coronary arteries. This suggests a very low risk of cardiovascular events, and individuals in this range often have a favorable prognosis.
  2. CAC Score of 1-99: A CAC score between 1 and 99 indicates the presence of mild calcification in the coronary arteries. This range signifies a low to moderate risk of cardiovascular disease, and it is an opportunity for individuals to implement preventive measures to reduce the progression of plaque formation.
  3. CAC Score of 100-399: A CAC score between 100 and 399 represents the presence of moderate calcification in the coronary arteries. This range suggests a significant risk of cardiovascular disease, and it necessitates more aggressive preventive strategies and medical interventions to reduce the risk of future complications.
  4. CAC Score of 400 or Higher: A CAC score of 400 or higher indicates extensive calcification in the coronary arteries. This range represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. It necessitates immediate and intensive medical interventions, including lifestyle modifications and potential medication therapies, to mitigate the risk and prevent further progression.

By understanding the range of CAC scores and their implications, individuals can work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized plan that addresses their specific risk level.

To obtain a CAC scan, consult your healthcare provider, obtain a referral to an imaging facility, schedule the scan, and discuss the results and follow-up plan with your healthcare provider. Take the proactive step towards optimizing your health and consider getting a CAC scan now. Your heart and overall well-being will thank you for it.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Essential Fat and Protein Sources for Vegans and Vegetarians on a Keto Diet

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Introduction: Following a ketogenic diet as a vegan or vegetarian can be challenging, as the focus on high fat and low carb intake requires careful consideration of food choices. However, with a wide range of nutrient-dense options available, it is possible to meet your fat and protein needs while adhering to a plant-based keto lifestyle. In this article, we will explore the best sources of fat and protein for vegans and vegetarians, with a special emphasis on keto-friendly choices.

Avocado: Nature’s Creamy Powerhouse (Keto-friendly) Avocado, the beloved green fruit, is not only a keto-friendly option but also a nutritional powerhouse. Packed with healthy monounsaturated fats, avocados provide a rich and creamy texture to dishes. They are also a source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an excellent addition to a vegan or vegetarian ketogenic diet.

Nuts and Seeds: Crunchy Delights (Keto-friendly) Nuts and seeds are versatile and satisfying options for obtaining both healthy fats and protein. Almonds, walnuts, cashews, chia seeds, flaxseeds, and hemp seeds are all keto-friendly choices. These crunchy delights are not only great for snacking but can also be incorporated into recipes, such as nut butters or as toppings for salads and smoothies.

Nut and Seed Butters: Spreads of Goodness (Keto-friendly) Nut and seed butters, such as peanut butter, almond butter, and tahini, are delectable spreads that offer a generous dose of healthy fats and protein. They can be enjoyed on their own, added to smoothies, used as a dip for vegetables, or incorporated into keto-friendly baking recipes.

Coconut and Coconut Oil: Tropical Treasures (Keto-friendly) Coconut and its derivatives are keto-friendly options that bring a tropical twist to your meals. Coconut meat, coconut oil, and coconut milk are rich in healthy fats and can be used in various keto recipes, from curries to smoothies. Coconut milk, with its creamy texture, can be a great base for vegan ketogenic dishes.

Olive Oil: Liquid Gold (Keto-friendly) Olive oil, a staple in the Mediterranean diet, is a source of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats. It is ideal for cooking or as a dressing for salads and vegetables, adding flavor and healthy fats to your meals.

Plant-Based Oils: A Flavorful Spectrum (Keto-friendly) Other plant-based oils, such as avocado oil, flaxseed oil, and sesame oil, offer a diverse range of flavors and are excellent sources of healthy fats for a vegan or vegetarian keto diet. These oils can be used for sautéing, roasting, and dressing to enhance the taste and nutritional profile of your dishes.

Legumes: Protein Powerhouses While not strictly keto-friendly due to their higher carb content, legumes such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas are still valuable sources of plant-based protein for vegans and vegetarians. They can be included in moderation, considering individual carb limits and dietary preferences.

Tofu and Tempeh: Plant-Based Protein Staples Tofu and tempeh, derived from soybeans, are versatile plant-based protein sources. They can be used in a variety of dishes, including stir-fries, salads, and curries. These options provide protein while keeping carbohydrate intake relatively low, making them suitable for a vegan or vegetarian keto diet.

Seitan: Meaty Texture, Plant-Based Protein Seitan, made from wheat gluten, is a high-protein option for those following a vegan or vegetarian keto diet. With its meaty texture and ability to absorb flavors, seitan is a versatile ingredient that can be used to create delicious and satisfying plant-based dishes.

Quinoa: The Complete Protein Grain Quinoa, though higher in carbs compared to other options, is a complete protein source that contains all essential amino acids. While it should be consumed in moderation on a ketogenic diet, quinoa can be a nutritious addition to a vegan or vegetarian keto meal plan when carefully portioned.

Conclusion: Maintaining a well-rounded vegan or vegetarian ketogenic diet requires careful consideration of fat and protein sources. Fortunately, there is a wide array of options available that cater to these needs. Avocado, nuts, seeds, coconut, olive oil, plant-based oils, legumes in moderation, tofu, tempeh, seitan, and quinoa (in limited amounts) offer a range of essential fats and protein for individuals following a plant-based keto lifestyle.

Remember to personalize your food choices according to your specific dietary goals and preferences. Consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that your nutrient intake aligns with your needs and to optimize your health while following a vegan or vegetarian ketogenic diet. Embrace the diversity of these plant-based options, and enjoy the benefits of a well-balanced and nourishing diet.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Harness the Power of Chia Seeds: Essential Fat Source for Vegans and Vegetarians on a Ketogenic Diet

By Stephen Fitzmeyer

Introduction: Following a ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting can present unique challenges for vegans and vegetarians. However, there is an incredibly versatile and nutrient-dense solution that can help bridge the fat gap in their diets—chia seeds. These tiny powerhouses are abundant in healthy fats, making them an indispensable addition for individuals seeking to maintain a balanced and nourishing meal plan. Let’s explore the vital role chia seeds play in providing essential fats for vegans and vegetarians on a ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting.

Rich in Healthy Fats: Chia seeds are a remarkable source of healthy fats, particularly omega-3 fatty acids. These essential fats are crucial for brain health, reducing inflammation, and supporting cardiovascular well-being. By incorporating chia seeds into their meals, vegans and vegetarians can ensure they are meeting their daily fat requirements, which are essential for overall health and vitality.

Promote Ketosis: In a ketogenic diet, the primary energy source shifts from carbohydrates to fats. Chia seeds, with their high fat content and low carbohydrate profile, contribute to achieving and maintaining a state of ketosis. Including chia seeds in a vegan or vegetarian ketogenic diet provides a reliable and convenient way to increase fat intake while minimizing carb consumption, aiding the body in transitioning to a fat-burning metabolic state.

Satiety and Appetite Control: One of the challenges of intermittent fasting is managing hunger and maintaining satiety during fasting periods. The combination of healthy fats and fiber in chia seeds helps promote a feeling of fullness, making them an effective tool for appetite control. The fats in chia seeds are digested slowly, providing sustained energy and reducing the likelihood of cravings or overeating. By incorporating chia seeds into meals or snacks, vegans and vegetarians can support their efforts in adhering to an intermittent fasting schedule.

Versatile and Easy to Include: Chia seeds offer immense versatility in meal preparation, making them an ideal addition to a vegan or vegetarian ketogenic diet. They can be added to smoothies, sprinkled on salads, used as a thickening agent in sauces, or incorporated into baked goods. Their ability to absorb liquids and form a gel-like consistency allows them to adapt to various culinary creations, enhancing both taste and texture.

Nutrient-Rich Profile: Beyond their healthy fat content, chia seeds boast an impressive nutrient profile. They are a notable source of plant-based protein, essential minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese, and dietary fiber. This nutrient combination is especially valuable for vegans and vegetarians who may face challenges in meeting their daily requirements. By integrating chia seeds into their diet, individuals can enhance their overall nutritional intake and ensure they are obtaining a well-rounded range of essential nutrients.

Conclusion: For vegans and vegetarians on a ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting, chia seeds are a nutritional powerhouse that plays a vital role in meeting the necessary fat intake. With their high healthy fat content, chia seeds support ketosis, enhance satiety, and provide a wide array of essential nutrients. By incorporating chia seeds into their meals, vegans and vegetarians can effectively address the challenge of obtaining adequate fats while adhering to their dietary preferences and maintaining the principles of a ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting. Embrace the extraordinary potential of chia seeds and witness the transformative impact they can have on your vegan or vegetarian ketogenic journey.


Here are some keto-friendly examples of how to use chia seeds in your daily meals:

  1. Keto Chia Pudding:
  • In a jar, combine 2 tablespoons of chia seeds, 1 cup of unsweetened almond milk (or any non-dairy milk with no added sugars), and a few drops of liquid stevia (or any keto-approved sweetener) to taste.
  • Stir well and let it sit in the refrigerator overnight or for at least 4 hours.
  • In the morning, give it a good stir and top with a sprinkle of low-carb berries (such as raspberries or blackberries), chopped nuts, or a dollop of coconut cream for added richness.
  1. Chia Seed Smoothie Booster:
  • Add 1 tablespoon of chia seeds to your favorite keto-friendly smoothie recipe.
  • Blend until smooth, and the chia seeds will provide added thickness and a boost of healthy fats to your smoothie.
  1. Keto Chia Seed Pudding Parfait:
  • In a jar or glass, layer chia pudding (made with chia seeds, unsweetened almond milk, and keto-friendly sweetener) with a dollop of full-fat coconut yogurt or unsweetened Greek yogurt.
  • Top with a sprinkle of crushed nuts, unsweetened coconut flakes, and a few low-carb berries.
  • Repeat the layers and create a beautiful and satisfying chia seed pudding parfait.
  1. Keto Chia Seed Crackers:
  • In a bowl, mix 1/4 cup of chia seeds, 1/4 cup of ground flaxseed, 2 tablespoons of coconut flour, 1/2 teaspoon of garlic powder, 1/2 teaspoon of onion powder, 1/4 teaspoon of sea salt, and 1/4 cup of water.
  • Let the mixture sit for a few minutes to allow the chia seeds and flaxseed to absorb the water and form a gel-like consistency.
  • Spread the mixture evenly on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake at 350°F (175°C) for about 15-20 minutes, or until the crackers are golden and crispy.
  • Allow them to cool before breaking them into crackers.
  • Serve the keto chia seed crackers with your favorite low-carb dip or enjoy them on their own as a crunchy snack.
  1. Keto Chia Seed Breakfast Porridge:
  • In a saucepan, combine 2 tablespoons of chia seeds, 2 tablespoons of unsweetened coconut flakes, 1/2 cup of unsweetened almond milk, 1/2 cup of water, and a pinch of cinnamon.
  • Cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until the mixture thickens and reaches your desired porridge consistency.
  • Remove from heat and let it cool for a few minutes.
  • Top with sliced almonds, a drizzle of sugar-free syrup or melted coconut oil, and a sprinkle of ground flaxseed or hemp hearts for added crunch and healthy fats.

Remember to adjust the portion sizes and ingredients based on your specific dietary needs and goals on the keto diet. Enjoy these keto-friendly chia seed recipes and explore more possibilities to incorporate this nutritious superfood into your daily keto meal plan.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Are You One of the 88% of the the U.S. Adult Population suffering from Chronic Inflammation? Here’s what you should know to find out and fix it.

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Introduction: Chronic inflammation is a silent yet powerful contributor to various health problems. It serves as a warning sign of underlying conditions such as metabolic syndrome, poor diet, and other chronic diseases. In this article, we aim to shed light on the detrimental effects of chronic inflammation and emphasize the significance of making positive lifestyle changes to prevent its progression and the onset of related health issues.

Chronic inflammation has been linked to the development of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and respiratory diseases. Understanding the significant impact of chronic inflammation on these chronic diseases highlights the urgency of addressing inflammation through lifestyle modifications.

Part 1: Chronic Inflammation and its Link to Metabolic Syndrome

Chronic inflammation is closely intertwined with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that includes obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol levels. This syndrome sets the stage for chronic inflammation, fueling a vicious cycle. As chronic inflammation persists, it further promotes the development of metabolic abnormalities, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic illnesses.

Part 2: The Role of Diet in Chronic Inflammation

A poor diet plays a significant role in chronic inflammation. Consuming processed foods high in refined carbohydrates, added sugars, unhealthy fats, and artificial additives triggers an inflammatory response within the body. Moreover, the excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids found in seed oils, commonly used in processed foods, promotes an imbalance in the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio, further exacerbating inflammation. To reduce chronic inflammation, it is important to avoid seed oils such as soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, and cottonseed oil, and instead opt for healthier alternatives like olive oil, avocado oil, and coconut oil.

Part 3: Inflammatory Markers to Assess Chronic Inflammation

If you suspect chronic inflammation, your physician may order specific blood tests to assess inflammatory markers in your body. These markers can provide valuable insights into the presence and extent of inflammation. Common inflammatory markers include:

  1. C-reactive Protein (CRP): Elevated CRP levels indicate systemic inflammation and can be indicative of various diseases.
  2. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): ESR measures the rate at which red blood cells settle in a tube, which can be elevated during inflammation.
  3. Interleukin-6 (IL-6): IL-6 is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory response, and increased levels may indicate ongoing inflammation.
  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α): TNF-α is another cytokine associated with inflammation, and elevated levels are observed in chronic inflammatory conditions.
  5. Fasting Insulin: Insulin resistance, often associated with chronic inflammation, can be assessed through fasting insulin levels.

Part 4: Taking Control: Lifestyle Changes to Combat Chronic Inflammation

The good news is that chronic inflammation is not entirely beyond our control. By making positive lifestyle changes, we can reduce its impact and mitigate the risks associated with it. Here are some key steps to consider:

  1. Adopting a Healthy Diet: By adopting a high-fat, low-carb diet rich in healthy fats, adequate protein, and non-starchy vegetables, you can reduce chronic inflammation, enhance your overall well-being, and enjoy a healthier and more vibrant life. Emphasize foods such as fatty fish, grass-fed meats, eggs, nuts, seeds, avocados, olive oil, and non-starchy vegetables. Avoid processed foods, sugary beverages, and seed oils high in omega-6 fatty acids, as they contribute to inflammation.
  2. Regular Exercise: Engage in regular physical activity to combat obesity, improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce systemic inflammation.
  3. Stress Management: Chronic stress contributes to inflammation. Incorporate stress management techniques such as meditation, mindfulness, and relaxation exercises into your routine.

Conclusion: Chronic inflammation is a red flag indicating underlying health issues and the potential development of chronic diseases. Metabolic syndrome, poor diet, and other factors contribute to its persistence. By recognizing the role of chronic inflammation in these conditions, we can take proactive steps to address it through lifestyle modifications. Adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular exercise, managing stress, and avoiding seed oils are crucial in combating chronic inflammation and reducing the risk of associated chronic diseases.

If you suspect chronic inflammation, it is essential to consult with your healthcare provider. They can order specific blood tests to assess inflammatory markers in your body, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and fasting insulin. These tests provide valuable insights into the presence and extent of inflammation, helping your physician develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Don’t wait until chronic inflammation leads to more serious health complications. Take action now to protect your well-being and prevent the development of chronic diseases. Your health is your most valuable asset, and addressing chronic inflammation is a vital step in safeguarding it.

Remember, you are in control of your health. By making conscious choices and adopting a proactive approach, you can reduce chronic inflammation, improve your well-being, and lead a vibrant life. Prioritize your health, make informed choices, and embrace a lifestyle that promotes well-being. Understanding the connection between chronic inflammation, metabolic syndrome, poor diet, and chronic diseases empowers you to break free from this harmful cycle and achieve better health and vitality. Start today and enjoy the long-term benefits of a life free from chronic inflammation. Your body will thank you for it.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

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