Category: Public Health

From Keto to Carnivore: Decoding Low Carb Diets for Ultimate Health and Vitality

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

In the quest for improved health and weight management, numerous dietary approaches have gained popularity. Among the most well-known are the low carb diets, including the ketogenic diet (keto) and the carnivore diet. However, it is important to understand the subtle nuances and benefits of each variation, as well as other popular low carb diets such as the Paleo, Mediterranean, and Standard American Diet (S.A.D.). In this article, we will explore the differences and benefits of these dietary choices, shedding light on the variables that make each one unique.

The Ketogenic Diet (Keto):
The ketogenic diet is a low carb, high fat diet that encourages the body to enter a state of ketosis. By significantly reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat consumption, the body shifts from using glucose as its primary fuel source to using ketones. This metabolic state has been associated with several benefits, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased mental clarity. Additionally, keto has shown promise in managing epilepsy and certain neurological disorders.

The Carnivore Diet:
At the other end of the spectrum lies the carnivore diet, which emphasizes exclusively animal products and eliminates plant-based foods entirely. This ultra-low carb, high fat, and high protein approach aims to mimic the dietary patterns of our ancestors. Advocates claim that eliminating plant foods can reduce inflammation, promote weight loss, and improve digestion. However, it is important to note that the carnivore diet is highly restrictive and lacks the diversity of nutrients found in a balanced diet.

The Paleo Diet:
The Paleo diet seeks to emulate the eating habits of our Paleolithic ancestors. It promotes the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods such as lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, while excluding grains, legumes, dairy products, and processed foods. By focusing on nutrient-dense foods and eliminating potential allergens, the Paleo diet aims to support weight loss, improve digestion, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

The Mediterranean Diet:
The Mediterranean diet is inspired by the traditional eating patterns of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It emphasizes plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, while incorporating moderate amounts of fish, poultry, and dairy products. This approach is rich in healthy fats, antioxidants, and fiber, which have been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease, improved brain function, and overall longevity.

The Standard American Diet (S.A.D.):
The Standard American Diet, unfortunately, is characterized by a high intake of processed foods, refined sugars, unhealthy fats, and a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. This diet is associated with a variety of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. It lacks the nutrient density and balance necessary for optimal health.

Benefits of Each Approach:

Keto: Weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, increased mental clarity, potential therapeutic benefits for epilepsy and neurological disorders.
Carnivore: Potential for reduced inflammation, weight loss, and improved digestion. However, it may lack essential nutrients and long-term sustainability.
Paleo: Improved weight management, reduced risk of chronic diseases, increased nutrient intake, elimination of potential allergens.
Mediterranean: Heart health, improved brain function, longevity, reduced risk of chronic diseases, balanced nutrient intake.
S.A.D.: No significant benefits compared to the other diets mentioned. Associated with various health issues.

Choosing the right low carb diet depends on individual goals, preferences, and health considerations. While the ketogenic and carnivore diets offer unique metabolic effects, it is important to consider the

long-term sustainability and potential nutrient deficiencies. The Paleo and Mediterranean diets provide a balanced approach by emphasizing whole, unprocessed foods and diverse nutrient profiles. In contrast, the Standard American Diet (S.A.D.) is associated with numerous health problems due to its reliance on processed and unhealthy foods.

It is essential to note that individual responses to different diets may vary. What works for one person may not yield the same results for another. It is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before making significant dietary changes.

Ultimately, the key to a successful and sustainable low carb diet lies in finding a balance that aligns with your health goals and preferences. Incorporating whole, nutrient-dense foods while reducing processed carbohydrates can have a positive impact on weight management, overall health, and disease prevention. By understanding the variables and benefits of different low carb diets, you can make an informed decision and embark on a journey towards improved well-being.

Comparison chart highlighting the macronutrient composition of each diet:

Please note that the macronutrient ratios mentioned above can vary based on individual preferences and specific interpretations of each diet. Additionally, the “Moderate” category indicates a more balanced distribution rather than being excessively high or low.

It’s important to keep in mind that macronutrient ratios can be adjusted within each diet based on individual needs, health goals, and preferences. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance for determining the ideal macronutrient breakdown for your specific circumstances.

Remember that while macronutrients play a significant role in dietary choices, the quality of food, micronutrient content, and overall balance of the diet are also crucial factors to consider for long-term health and well-being.

Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

CAC: The Ultimate Test for Assessing Health and Why You Need One Now!

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD


In the realm of healthcare, staying proactive and prioritizing preventive measures is key to maintaining optimal health. The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test has recently emerged as a groundbreaking tool in health assessment, providing invaluable insights into cardiovascular health. This article highlights the significance of CAC as the ultimate test for assessing health and emphasizes why individuals should consider getting one now to safeguard their well-being. Additionally, we’ll explore how patients can easily obtain a CAC scan for themselves.

Understanding CAC Scoring

The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test employs non-invasive computed tomography (CT) scans to detect the presence and extent of calcified plaque in the coronary arteries. By quantifying the amount of calcium present, it calculates a CAC score, effectively gauging the overall burden of atherosclerosis in the arteries. This score serves as a crucial predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), empowering individuals to take preventive action.

The Urgency of CAC as a Health Indicator

  1. Early Detection of Silent Risks: CAC scoring enables early detection of potential cardiovascular issues, even before symptoms manifest. By identifying calcified plaque deposits, healthcare professionals can determine an individual’s risk of experiencing a heart attack or developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Seeking a CAC test now can help unveil hidden risks and prompt timely interventions to prevent disease progression.
  2. Personalized Risk Assessment: Unlike traditional risk assessment tools, CAC scoring provides a precise evaluation of atherosclerosis. Through quantitative analysis, it offers a more accurate estimation of an individual’s risk of developing CVD. Obtaining a CAC score now empowers healthcare providers to devise personalized treatment plans tailored to an individual’s level of risk, enabling timely interventions and better health outcomes.
  3. Empowerment for Lifestyle Changes: CAC scoring serves as a powerful motivator for individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles. Witnessing the presence and extent of calcified plaque acts as a visual reminder of the importance of positive changes in diet, exercise, and stress management. By getting a CAC test now, you can proactively take charge of your health, making informed decisions and fostering long-term adherence to beneficial lifestyle modifications.
  4. Preventive Measures for Long-Term Health: CAC scoring facilitates proactive preventive measures by categorizing individuals into different risk groups based on their CAC scores. This allows healthcare providers to implement appropriate treatments and interventions to reduce the risk of CVD. Taking action now, based on your CAC score, can significantly improve your long-term cardiovascular health and well-being.

How to Obtain a CAC Scan

To obtain a CAC scan, you can follow these steps:

  1. Consult Your Healthcare Provider: Schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider to discuss your interest in getting a CAC scan. They will evaluate your medical history, risk factors, and overall health to determine if a CAC scan is appropriate for you.
  2. Referral and Imaging Facility: If your healthcare provider determines that a CAC scan is necessary, they will provide you with a referral to an imaging facility or radiology center equipped to perform the scan.
  3. Schedule the Scan: Contact the recommended imaging facility and schedule your CAC scan appointment. They will provide you with any necessary instructions, such as fasting requirements or medication restrictions before the test.
  4. The CAC Scan Procedure: During the CAC scan, you will lie on a table that moves through a CT scanner. The scan is quick and painless, typically taking only a few minutes to complete.
  5. Results and Follow-up: Once the scan is complete, the radiologist will analyze the images and calculate your CAC score. Your healthcare provider will then review the results with you. They will explain the implications of your CAC score, discuss any necessary lifestyle modifications or medical interventions, and develop a personalized plan to mitigate your cardiovascular risk.


The Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scoring test is a powerful tool for assessing cardiovascular health and preventing future complications. By identifying silent risks, providing personalized risk assessment, motivating lifestyle changes, and enabling proactive preventive measures, CAC scoring empowers individuals to take control of their well-being. To obtain a CAC scan, consult your healthcare provider, obtain a referral to an imaging facility, schedule the scan, and discuss the results and follow-up plan with your healthcare provider. Take the proactive step towards optimizing your health and consider getting a CAC scan now. Your heart and overall well-being will thank you for it.

CAC Score

After undergoing a CAC scan, you will receive a CAC score that falls within a specific range. Here are the general ranges and their corresponding meanings:

  1. CAC Score of 0: A CAC score of 0 indicates the absence of detectable calcified plaque in the coronary arteries. This suggests a very low risk of cardiovascular events, and individuals in this range often have a favorable prognosis.
  2. CAC Score of 1-99: A CAC score between 1 and 99 indicates the presence of mild calcification in the coronary arteries. This range signifies a low to moderate risk of cardiovascular disease, and it is an opportunity for individuals to implement preventive measures to reduce the progression of plaque formation.
  3. CAC Score of 100-399: A CAC score between 100 and 399 represents the presence of moderate calcification in the coronary arteries. This range suggests a significant risk of cardiovascular disease, and it necessitates more aggressive preventive strategies and medical interventions to reduce the risk of future complications.
  4. CAC Score of 400 or Higher: A CAC score of 400 or higher indicates extensive calcification in the coronary arteries. This range represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. It necessitates immediate and intensive medical interventions, including lifestyle modifications and potential medication therapies, to mitigate the risk and prevent further progression.

By understanding the range of CAC scores and their implications, individuals can work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized plan that addresses their specific risk level.

To obtain a CAC scan, consult your healthcare provider, obtain a referral to an imaging facility, schedule the scan, and discuss the results and follow-up plan with your healthcare provider. Take the proactive step towards optimizing your health and consider getting a CAC scan now. Your heart and overall well-being will thank you for it.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

The Rise of Overweight/Obesity in the U.S.: Examining the Influence of Dietary Guidelines, the Food Pyramid, and Ancel Keys

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Introduction: The United States has experienced a significant increase in overweight and obesity rates over the past few decades, leading to serious health concerns. It is intriguing to examine the correlation between the rise in overweight/obesity and the transformation of the American diet, particularly with the introduction of dietary guidelines and the prominent role played by Ansel Keys. In this article, we delve into the historical context and explore how the shift away from fresh whole foods, influenced by Keys’ research, may have inadvertently contributed to the obesity epidemic in the United States.

The Era of Fresh Whole Foods: Before the introduction of dietary guidelines in the 1980s, the American diet primarily consisted of fresh, whole foods. Meals were often prepared from scratch, using ingredients sourced directly from farms and local markets. Fresh fruits and vegetables, meats, and unprocessed grains were the foundation of everyday eating, providing a nutrient-dense and balanced approach to nutrition.

Ansel Keys and Dietary Fat: Ansel Keys, a prominent scientist, conducted influential research in the mid-20th century that examined the relationship between dietary fat and heart disease. His work, known as the “Seven Countries Study,” suggested a correlation between high-fat diets and increased risk of cardiovascular issues. However, Keys’ study focused on selected countries, disregarding nations with contrasting dietary patterns that contradicted his findings.

The Impact of Keys’ Findings: Keys’ research gained significant attention and led to a shift in nutritional thinking. Dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, became vilified, and the notion that a low-fat diet was crucial for maintaining heart health took root. As a result, dietary guidelines and recommendations began emphasizing the reduction of fat intake, leading to the promotion of low-fat and fat-free products in the market.

The Emergence of Processed Foods: The low-fat movement led to a surge in processed food products marketed as healthy alternatives. With the focus on reducing fat, manufacturers started formulating products with reduced fat content but compensated by adding excessive amounts of sugar, artificial additives, and refined carbohydrates. This shift in the food industry coincided with the introduction of dietary guidelines, further driving the consumption of processed foods among Americans.

Unintended Consequences: The shift away from fresh whole foods towards processed, low-fat alternatives had unintended consequences. These processed foods were often calorie-dense, nutrient-poor, and contributed to overconsumption. The replacement of dietary fats with refined carbohydrates and added sugars not only affected overall calorie intake but also disrupted metabolic processes, leading to weight gain and related health issues.

Reevaluating Dietary Choices: In recent years, there has been a growing realization that the previous low-fat paradigm may have played a role in the obesity epidemic. Many experts advocate for a return to a more balanced approach, focusing on the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods and reevaluating the role of dietary fats. This includes embracing healthy fats such as those found in avocados, nuts, olive oil, fatty meats, eggs, butter, and cheeses.

Empowering Individuals through Education: To combat the rise of overweight/obesity, it is essential to empower individuals with knowledge and encourage them to make informed dietary choices. By educating ourselves about the benefits of fresh whole foods, understanding the potential pitfalls of processed foods, and reevaluating the role of dietary fats, we can make strides towards improving our overall health and well-being.

Conclusion: The rise of overweight and obesity in the United States coincides with the transformation of the American diet, influenced by the introduction of dietary guidelines and the impact of Ansel Keys’ research. While Keys’ findings had noble intentions, the emphasis on low-fat diets and the

proliferation of processed, low-fat alternatives may have inadvertently contributed to the obesity epidemic. It is important to acknowledge the historical context and the role played by fresh whole foods in the American diet before the era of dietary guidelines. By revisiting and embracing a diet centered around whole, unprocessed foods, we can reclaim a healthier approach to nutrition.

Moving forward, it is crucial to continue educating individuals about the importance of a balanced diet that includes nutrient-dense foods and minimizes reliance on processed and refined options. By fostering a culture of mindful eating and promoting the consumption of fresh, whole foods, we can work towards reversing the alarming trends of overweight and obesity and promoting a healthier future for all.

Coding Evidence-Based Medicine into Web-Based Applications

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that involves using the best available evidence to make informed clinical decisions. The goal of EBM is to improve the quality of patient care by integrating research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences into clinical decision making. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using technology to support EBM and help clinicians make evidence-based decisions. Web-based applications are a popular way to accomplish this goal.

Web-based applications that incorporate EBM can provide clinicians with easy access to the latest research evidence, as well as clinical practice guidelines and other relevant resources. These applications can help clinicians make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and management of a wide range of medical conditions.

The process of building a web-based EBM application involves several steps. The first step is to identify the target audience and determine the specific clinical needs that the application will address. This may involve conducting a needs assessment and identifying gaps in current clinical practice.

The second step is to identify relevant EBM resources and integrate them into the application. This may involve using electronic databases, such as PubMed or Cochrane Library, to search for the latest research evidence. It may also involve incorporating clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and other evidence-based resources into the application.

Once the relevant EBM resources have been identified, the next step is to design the application’s user interface. The application should be easy to navigate, intuitive to use, and provide users with relevant information at the appropriate time. The design of the application should be based on user-centered design principles, which involve actively involving users in the design process and incorporating their feedback into the final product.

After the application has been designed, the next step is to develop the application using web development languages and frameworks such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and React. The application may also incorporate server-side programming languages such as PHP or Python, and databases such as MongoDB or MySQL to store and retrieve data.

Finally, the application should be tested and validated to ensure that it is functioning as intended and providing accurate and reliable information to users. This may involve user testing, where the application is tested by actual users, as well as usability testing, where the application is tested for ease of use and effectiveness.

In conclusion, web-based applications that incorporate EBM can provide clinicians with easy access to the latest research evidence and clinical practice guidelines, helping them make informed decisions about patient care. The development of these applications involves identifying the target audience and their clinical needs, integrating relevant EBM resources, designing an intuitive user interface, developing the application using web development languages and frameworks, and testing and validating the application to ensure that it is effective and reliable. By following these steps, developers can build web-based EBM applications that improve patient care and support evidence-based decision making in clinical practice.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

From Cholera to COVID-19: The Role of Epidemiology in Disease Outbreaks

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

The cholera outbreak in 1854 in London, and the work of John Snow, is considered a turning point in the field of epidemiology. The outbreak caused thousands of deaths and was traced back to contaminated water from the Broad Street pump. Snow’s investigation led him to identify the source of the outbreak, and he subsequently recommended measures to prevent the spread of cholera.

Fast forward to modern times, and we are facing a new epidemic – COVID-19. The similarities between the two outbreaks are striking, and so are the differences. Like cholera, COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that spreads through contact with infected individuals or surfaces. However, unlike cholera, COVID-19 is caused by a novel virus that is still not fully understood.

Epidemiology played a crucial role in both outbreaks. In the case of cholera, Snow used epidemiological methods to map the spread of the disease and identify the source of the outbreak. He collected data on the location of cases and the source of water for the affected individuals, and used this data to create a map that showed a clear association between the cases and the Broad Street pump. This data-driven approach was a key factor in his successful intervention.

Similarly, epidemiology has played a critical role in the management of COVID-19. Epidemiologists have been tracking the spread of the disease, identifying risk factors and patterns of transmission, and providing guidance on how to mitigate the spread of the virus. Epidemiological models have been used to predict the course of the pandemic, and to inform public health policies and interventions.

However, there are also significant differences between the two outbreaks. COVID-19 is a much more complex disease than cholera, with a wide range of symptoms and outcomes. The virus is highly contagious and can be spread by asymptomatic carriers, making it much more challenging to control. The development of effective vaccines and treatments has been a major focus of the public health response to COVID-19, and epidemiology has played a critical role in evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions.

In conclusion, the cholera outbreak and the work of John Snow laid the foundation for modern epidemiology, and the lessons learned from that outbreak have helped us manage and control many subsequent disease outbreaks. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a new set of challenges, but the principles of epidemiology remain essential to understanding and controlling the spread of the virus. By continuing to apply these principles, we can hope to mitigate the impact of the pandemic and prepare for future outbreaks.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Building Prototypes for Healthcare Using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, React, Python, MongoDB, and MySQL

By Stephen Fitzmeyer, MD

Building prototypes is an essential step in the healthcare software development process. It allows developers to test and refine their ideas, improve user experience, and identify potential issues before investing significant time and resources into building a fully functional application. In this article, we will discuss how to build prototypes for healthcare using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, React, Python, MongoDB, and MySQL.

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are the three fundamental technologies used to build prototypes for web applications. HTML is used to define the structure and content of web pages, CSS is used to style and format the pages, and JavaScript is used to add interactivity and functionality. These technologies are used to create the front-end of a web application, which is the part of the application that users interact with.


PHP is a server-side scripting language that is used to build dynamic web applications. It is commonly used in healthcare software development to build web applications that interact with databases and other server-side components. PHP is used to create the back-end of a web application, which is the part of the application that is responsible for processing user input, interacting with databases, and generating dynamic content.


React is a popular front-end JavaScript library that is used to build user interfaces. It is used to create interactive and responsive user interfaces that can be easily updated and modified. React is commonly used in healthcare software development to build web applications that provide a modern and user-friendly interface.


Python is a versatile programming language that is widely used in healthcare software development. It is used to build server-side components, machine learning models, data analysis tools, and more. Python is commonly used in healthcare software development to build web applications that perform complex data analysis and provide advanced features such as natural language processing and machine learning.

MongoDB and MySQL

MongoDB and MySQL are two popular database management systems used in healthcare software development. MongoDB is a document-based NoSQL database that is used to store and retrieve large amounts of unstructured data. MySQL is a relational database management system that is used to store and retrieve structured data. Both databases are commonly used in healthcare software development to store patient data, medical records, and other healthcare-related information.


Building prototypes for healthcare using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, React, Python, MongoDB, and MySQL is an effective way to test and refine healthcare software ideas before investing significant time and resources into building a fully functional application. By using these technologies, healthcare software developers can create modern and user-friendly web applications that provide advanced features such as data analysis, machine learning, and natural language processing. With the right tools and skills, healthcare software developers can build prototypes that provide value to patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare organizations.

Unveiling the Mathematics of Epidemiology: Analyzing Disease Patterns and Prevention Strategies

Epidemiology, the scientific study of health and disease distribution in populations, is a field that relies on mathematical concepts and analysis to understand and combat public health challenges. In this article, we will explore some key mathematical examples that highlight the significance of epidemiology in healthcare.

Incidence and Prevalence: Let’s consider a hypothetical population of 10,000 individuals. Over the course of one year, 500 new cases of a particular disease are diagnosed. The incidence of the disease in this population would be calculated as follows:

Incidence = (Number of new cases / Total population) x 1,000 Incidence = (500 / 10,000) x 1,000 Incidence = 50 cases per 1,000 population

Prevalence, on the other hand, measures the proportion of individuals with the disease at a specific point in time. If, at the beginning of the year, there were already 200 existing cases in the population, the prevalence of the disease would be:

Prevalence = (Number of existing cases / Total population) x 1,000 Prevalence = (200 / 10,000) x 1,000 Prevalence = 20 cases per 1,000 population

These calculations provide healthcare providers with valuable information about the disease burden and help in identifying trends and potential risk factors.

Risk Factors: Let’s consider a study examining the relationship between smoking and the development of lung cancer. Researchers gather data from a sample of 1,000 individuals, finding that 300 of them are smokers and 100 of those smokers develop lung cancer over a five-year period. The incidence rate of lung cancer among smokers can be calculated as:

Incidence Rate = (Number of new cases among smokers / Total number of smokers) x 1,000 Incidence Rate = (100 / 300) x 1,000 Incidence Rate = 333.33 cases per 1,000 smokers

This example demonstrates how epidemiology can quantify the association between a specific risk factor (smoking) and the occurrence of a disease (lung cancer).

Outbreak Investigation: During an outbreak investigation, data collection and analysis are crucial for identifying the source and mode of transmission of a disease. Let’s say there is an outbreak of a foodborne illness, and investigators collect information from 500 affected individuals. By analyzing the data, they find that 400 of them consumed a particular brand of contaminated food. This finding suggests a potential association between the contaminated food and the outbreak.

Screening: To illustrate the importance of screening, let’s consider a population of 2,000 individuals eligible for a breast cancer screening program. The screening test has a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 95%. Out of the 50 individuals who have breast cancer, 45 will test positive (true positives) while 5 will test negative (false negatives). Out of the 1,950 individuals without breast cancer, 1,852 will test negative (true negatives) while 98 will test positive (false positives). These numbers highlight the trade-off between identifying true cases of breast cancer and the potential for false-positive results.

Clinical Trials: Clinical trials rely on statistical analysis to assess the effectiveness of new treatments or interventions. For instance, a study involving 500 participants might randomly assign half of them to receive a new medication while the other half receives a placebo. By comparing the outcomes between the two groups, researchers can determine the efficacy of the medication and make evidence-based decisions regarding its use in clinical practice.

By understanding these mathematical examples within the context of epidemiology, healthcare providers can gain valuable insights into the distribution and determinants of diseases. This knowledge enables them to develop effective prevention and control strategies, improve population health outcomes,

and make informed decisions in healthcare. The application of mathematics in epidemiology provides a quantitative framework for understanding the patterns and dynamics of diseases within populations.

Mathematics allows us to quantify the incidence and prevalence of diseases, providing a measure of the disease burden and helping healthcare providers allocate resources effectively. By calculating incidence rates, we can assess the risk factors associated with diseases, such as the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.

During outbreaks, mathematical analysis helps investigators identify the source and mode of transmission of diseases, guiding public health interventions to prevent further spread. Screening programs utilize mathematical concepts to evaluate the performance of tests, balancing the need for early detection with the risk of false positives.

Clinical trials, powered by statistical analysis, provide evidence-based information on the efficacy and safety of new treatments. Mathematics helps determine sample sizes, assess treatment outcomes, and draw valid conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions.

The integration of mathematics in epidemiology strengthens the foundation of public health decision-making. It allows healthcare providers to make data-driven assessments, identify high-risk populations, implement targeted interventions, and monitor the impact of preventive measures.

As we continue to navigate the challenges of disease prevention and control, understanding the role of mathematics in epidemiology is paramount. By harnessing the power of numbers, healthcare providers can effectively analyze and interpret health data, paving the way for evidence-based strategies that protect and promote the well-being of populations.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

Reducing Blue Light Exposure: Effective Strategies for a Restful Night’s Sleep

In today’s digital era, our constant exposure to screens emitting blue light has raised concerns about its potential impact on sleep quality. Fortunately, there are several practical solutions available to minimize blue light exposure and promote a more restful night’s sleep. In this article, we will explore various strategies supported by research to help you reduce blue light exposure.

  1. Device Settings and Filters: Many electronic devices offer settings that allow you to reduce the amount of blue light emitted. By adjusting the display settings on your smartphone, tablet, or computer, you can decrease the intensity of blue light. Some devices even provide a “night mode” or “blue light filter” option, which can automatically adjust the color temperature of the screen to reduce blue light emission. Additionally, you can consider installing external screen filters or privacy screens that block or filter out blue light, providing an extra layer of protection.
  2. Blue Light Blocking Glasses: Blue light blocking glasses have gained popularity as a convenient solution to minimize blue light exposure. These glasses are designed to filter out or block a significant portion of blue light wavelengths, reducing its impact on your eyes and sleep patterns. Wearing blue light blocking glasses, especially in the evening hours when exposure to screens is common, can help mitigate the disruptive effects of blue light on your circadian rhythm. Clip-on versions, like the one you mentioned, offer a practical and versatile option for those who don’t want to give up screen time entirely.
  3. Environmental Modifications: Making changes to your sleep environment can also help reduce blue light exposure. Consider investing in blackout curtains or shades that effectively block external sources of light, including streetlights or ambient light pollution. By creating a dark and sleep-conducive atmosphere in your bedroom, you can minimize unnecessary exposure to blue light during nighttime hours.
  4. Time Management: While it may be challenging to completely eliminate screen time before bed, establishing a buffer period between screen use and sleep can significantly reduce the disruptive effects of blue light. Aim to limit screen time, especially in the two to three hours leading up to bedtime. During this time, engage in relaxing activities that promote winding down, such as reading a book, practicing mindfulness or meditation, or listening to calming music. This transition period allows your body to adjust and prepare for restful sleep.

It’s important to note that the effectiveness of these strategies may vary from person to person. Experimenting with different approaches and finding what works best for you is key. Additionally, it’s always advisable to consult with healthcare professionals or sleep specialists for personalized advice tailored to your specific needs and circumstances.

By implementing these solutions and reducing blue light exposure, you can support your natural sleep-wake cycle and enhance the quality of your sleep. Prioritizing good sleep hygiene, alongside other healthy lifestyle practices, is crucial for overall well-being and optimal functioning during waking hours.

In summary, reducing blue light exposure is a vital step in promoting restful sleep. Whether through adjusting device settings, using external filters or blue light blocking glasses, modifying your sleep environment, or managing your screen time effectively, incorporating these strategies into your daily routine can have a positive impact on your sleep quality and overall health. Remember, small changes can make a big difference when it comes to ensuring a good night’s sleep.

Author: Sharon Lojun, M.D., M.S.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health


  1. Settings on Devices: Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010). Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review. Sleep Medicine, 11(8), 735-742. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.02.006
  2. External Screen Filters: Figueiro, M. G., & Rea, M. S. (2012). The effects of red and blue lights on circadian variations in cortisol, alpha amylase, and melatonin. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2012, 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2012/461739
  3. Glasses: Chellappa, S. L., Steiner, R., Blattner, P., & Oelhafen, P. (2017). Got rhythm?—Better sleep with customized light and sleep therapy. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 32(4), 322-330. doi: 10.1177/0748730417713572
  4. Curtains: Bedrosian, T. A., & Nelson, R. J. (2013). Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits. Translational Psychiatry, 3(3), e249. doi: 10.1038/tp.2013.27

The Importance of Sleep Health: Optimizing Your Rest for Overall Well-being

Getting quality sleep is essential for our overall health and well-being. It not only affects our physical health but also has a significant impact on our mental and emotional well-being. In this article, we’ll explore the importance of sleep health and discuss various factors that can influence the quality of our sleep.

Adaptive and Maladaptive Cortisol: The Impact of Stress Hormones Cortisol, commonly known as the stress hormone, plays a crucial role in our sleep-wake cycle. In healthy individuals, cortisol levels naturally rise in the morning to help us wake up and stay alert throughout the day. However, problems arise when cortisol levels become dysregulated, leading to maladaptive responses that can disrupt our sleep patterns. Excessive exposure to stress, screen time, and constant alerts can exacerbate cortisol levels, making it challenging to unwind and fall asleep at night.

Blue Light and Silence: Creating a Sleep-Conducive Environment In today’s digital age, we are constantly exposed to screens emitting blue light, which can interfere with our natural sleep rhythms. To counteract this, it’s beneficial to establish a blue light curfew by avoiding screens for at least an hour before bed. Additionally, creating a quiet and peaceful environment can help signal to your body that it’s time to rest. Consider incorporating relaxation techniques such as meditation or gentle stretching before bedtime to promote a calm state of mind.

Sleep Problems and Night Shifts: Finding Balance Night shift work can disrupt our body’s natural circadian rhythm, making it difficult to achieve restful sleep during the day. If you find yourself working night shifts, it’s crucial to prioritize your sleep by creating a dark and quiet sleeping environment. Invest in blackout curtains or a sleep mask to block out sunlight, and use earplugs or white noise machines to minimize distractions. Establishing a consistent sleep schedule, even on your days off, can also help regulate your body’s internal clock.

Mental Health and Sleep: A Bidirectional Relationship The relationship between mental health and sleep is bidirectional – poor sleep can contribute to mental health issues, and mental health issues can disrupt sleep patterns. If you’re experiencing difficulties sleeping due to stress, anxiety, or depression, it’s essential to address these underlying concerns. Seek support from healthcare professionals who can help you develop coping strategies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), which can improve both sleep and mental well-being.

Exercise Patterns: Promoting Restful Sleep Regular exercise can significantly impact the quality of our sleep. Engaging in physical activity, especially earlier in the day, can help regulate our body’s internal clock and promote restful sleep at night. However, intense exercise close to bedtime may have stimulating effects, making it harder to fall asleep. Find a balance that works for you and consider incorporating activities such as yoga, stretching, or low-impact exercises in the evening to unwind and prepare your body for a good night’s sleep.

In conclusion, prioritizing sleep health is crucial for our overall well-being. By understanding the impact of cortisol, implementing strategies to reduce screen time and exposure to blue light, and creating a sleep-conducive environment, we can improve our sleep quality. Additionally, recognizing the challenges of night shifts, addressing mental health concerns, and incorporating exercise patterns that support restful sleep can all contribute to a healthy sleep routine.

Remember, sleep is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, and if you consistently struggle with sleep problems, it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional who can provide personalized guidance and support.

Author: Sharon Lojun, M.D., M.S.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health

Transforming Healthcare in Rural America: The Role of Artificial Intelligence

Introduction: Access to quality healthcare remains a significant challenge for rural communities in America. Limited resources, geographical barriers, and a shortage of healthcare professionals contribute to healthcare disparities in these areas. However, the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) offers a transformative solution to address these challenges. This article explores how AI can improve healthcare in rural America, enhancing diagnosis and treatment, expanding access to specialized care, optimizing healthcare delivery, and empowering patients to take control of their health.

  1. Enhanced Diagnosis and Treatment: AI algorithms have the potential to revolutionize the diagnostic process in rural healthcare settings. Machine learning models can analyze medical data, including patient records, lab results, and imaging scans, to assist healthcare providers in making accurate and timely diagnoses. AI can also support the identification of patterns and trends in population health data, helping healthcare professionals proactively address prevalent conditions in rural communities.
  2. Telemedicine and Remote Care: One of the most significant advantages of AI in rural healthcare is the ability to offer telemedicine and remote care services. Through AI-powered platforms, patients in remote areas can access virtual consultations with healthcare providers, eliminating the need for long-distance travel. This technology allows rural residents to receive timely medical advice, monitor chronic conditions, and access specialized care without the burden of geographical barriers.
  3. Optimization of Healthcare Delivery: AI can help optimize healthcare delivery in rural areas by streamlining processes and reducing inefficiencies. Predictive analytics can aid in resource allocation, ensuring that medical facilities have adequate staff, supplies, and equipment to meet the needs of the community. AI can also assist in predicting disease outbreaks and enabling targeted interventions, enabling rural healthcare providers to respond effectively to public health emergencies.
  4. Support for Rural Healthcare Professionals: AI can alleviate the burden on rural healthcare professionals by providing decision support tools and real-time access to medical information. AI-powered systems can analyze vast medical literature, recommend treatment options based on best practices, and offer guidance in complex medical scenarios. This assistance can enhance the capabilities of rural healthcare providers, enabling them to deliver high-quality care with greater confidence.
  5. Empowering Patients: AI technologies can empower rural patients to actively participate in their healthcare journey. Mobile health applications and wearable devices equipped with AI capabilities can help individuals monitor their vital signs, track their health conditions, and receive personalized health recommendations. By promoting self-care and providing health education, AI empowers rural residents to take control of their well-being and make informed decisions about their health.

Conclusion: Artificial intelligence has the potential to revolutionize healthcare in rural America, addressing the unique challenges faced by these communities. Through enhanced diagnosis and treatment, telemedicine, optimized healthcare delivery, support for healthcare professionals, and patient empowerment, AI can bridge the gap in access to quality healthcare services. As rural areas strive for equitable healthcare, leveraging the power of AI becomes crucial. Collaborative efforts between healthcare organizations, policymakers, and technology experts are needed to ensure that AI is effectively integrated into rural healthcare systems, ultimately improving health outcomes and enhancing the well-being of rural Americans.

Author: Stephen Fitzmeyer, M.D.
Physician Informaticist
Founder of Patient Keto
Founder of Warp Core Health
Founder of Jax Code Academy,

Connect with Dr. Stephen Fitzmeyer:
Twitter: @PatientKeto

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